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**Sémagramme** is a follow-up to the computational linguistic activities of the former INRIA team Calligramme.

The overall objective of the **Sémagramme** project is to design and develop new unifying logic-based models, methods, and tools for the semantic analysis of natural language utterances and discourses. This includes the logical modelling of pragmatic phenomena related to discourse dynamics. Typically, these models and methods will be based on standard logical concepts (stemming from formal language theory, mathematical logic, and type theory), which should make them easy to integrate.

The project is organized along three research directions:

# Syntax-Semantics Interface

The Sémagramme project intends to focus on the semantics of natural languages (in a wider sense than usual, including some pragmatics). Nevertheless, the semantic construction process is syntactically guided, that is, the constructions of logical representations of meaning are based on the analysis of the syntactic structures. We do not want, however, to commit ourselves to such or such specific theory of syntax. Consequently, our approach should be based on an abstract generic model of the syntax-semantic interface.

Here, an important idea of Montague comes into play, namely, the “homomorphism requirement”: semantics must appear as a homomorphic image of syntax. While this idea is almost a truism in the context of mathematical logic, it remains challenged in the context of natural languages. Nevertheless, Montague’s idea has been quite fruitful, especially in the field of categorial grammars, where van Benthem showed how syntax and semantics could be connected using the Curry-Howard isomorphism [bibcite key=vanBenthem:1986]. This correspondence is the keystone of the syntax-semantics interface of modern type-logical grammars [bibcite key=moortgat:1997]. It also motivated the definition of our own Abstract Categorial Grammars [bibcite key=degroote:2001].

Technically, an Abstract Categorial Grammar simply consists of a (linear) homomorphism between two higher-order signatures. Extensive studies have shown that this simple model allows several grammatical formalisms to be expressed, providing them with a syntax-semantics interface for free [bibcite key=degroote:2004,degroote:2002,degroote:2003,pogodalla:inria-00107768,kanazawa-salvati:2007,retore:2010:inria-00409557_1].

We intend to carry on with the development of the Abstract Categorial Grammar framework. At the foundational level, we will define and study possible type theoretic extensions of the formalism, in order to increase its expressive power and its flexibility. At the implementation level, we will continue the development of an Abstract Categorial Grammar support system.

As said above, to consider the syntax-semantics interface as the starting point of our investigations allows us not to be committed to some specific syntactic theory. The Montagovian syntax-semantics interface, however, cannot be considered to be universal. In particular, it does not seem to be that well adapted to dependency and model-theoretic grammars. Consequently, in order to be as generic as possible, we intend to explore alternative models of the syntax-semantics interface. In particular, we will explore relational models where several distinct semantic representations can correspond to the same syntactic structure.

# Discourse Dynamics

It is well known that the interpretation of a discourse is a dynamic process. Take a sentence occurring in a discourse. On the one hand, it must be interpreted according to its context. On the other hand, its interpretation affects this context, and must therefore result in an updating of the current context. For this reason, discourse interpretation is traditionally considered to belong to pragmatics. The cut between pragmatics and semantics, however, is not that clear.

As we mentioned above, we intend to apply to some aspects of pragmatics (mainly, discourse dynamics) the same methodological tools Montague applied to semantics. The challenge here is to obtain a completely compositional theory of discourse interpretation, by respecting Montague’s homomorphism requirement. We think that this is possible by using techniques coming from programming language theory, in particular, continuation semantics [bibcite key=strachey-wadsworth:1974,barker:2002,barker:2004,shan:2004] and the related theories of functional control operators [bibcite key=felleisen-et-al:1987,felleisen-hieb:1992].

We have indeed successfully applied such techniques in order to model the way quantifiers in natural languages may dynamically extend their scope [bibcite key=degroote:2006]. We intend to tackle, in a similar way, other dynamic phenomena (typically, anaphora and referential expressions, presupposition, modal subordination…).

What characterize these different dynamic phenomena is that their interpretations need information to be retrieved from a current context. This raises the question of the modeling of the context itself. At a foundational level, we have to answer questions such as the following. What is the nature of the information to be stored in the context? What are the processes that allow implicit information to be inferred from the context? What are the primitives that allow a context to be updated? How does the structure of the discourse and the discourse relations affect the structure of the context? These questions also raise implementation issues. What are the appropriate datatypes? How can we keep the complexity of the inference algorithms sufficiently low?

# Common Basic Resources

Even if our research primarily focuses on semantics and pragmatics, we nevertheless need syntax. More precisely, we need syntactic trees to start with. We consequently need grammars, lexicons, and parsing algorithms to produce such trees. During the last years, we have developed the notion of interaction grammar [bibcite key=guillaume-perrier:2009] and graph rewriting [bibcite key=guillaume:hal-01188694] as models of natural language syntax. This includes the development of grammars for French [bibcite key=perrier:inria-00184108_1,guillaume:hal-01188694], together with morpho-syntactic lexicons. We intend to continue this line of research and development. In particular, we want to increase the coverage of our grammars for French, and provide our parsers with more robust algorithms.

Further primary resources are needed in order to put at work a computational semantic analysis of utterances and discourses. As we want our approach to be as compositional as possible, we must develop lexicons annotated with semantic information. This opens the quite wide research area of lexical semantics.

Finally, when dealing with logical representations of utterance interpretations, the need for inference facilities is ubiquitous. Inference is needed in the course of the interpretation process, but also to exploit the result of the interpretation. Indeed, an advantage of using formal logic for semantic representations is the possibility of using logical inference to derive new information. From a computational point of view, however, logical inference may be highly complex. Consequently, we need to investigate which logical fragments can be used efficiently for natural language oriented inference.

## References

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