Rarefied Gas Flows
Nozzle backflow in satellite altitude control thrusters
In satellite altitude control thrusters, a peculiar phenomena happens at very high altitude. The flow expands at the outlet of the nozzle and goes back towards the satellite. This back flow can lead to pollution of optical devices (due to partial from incomplete combustion for example) that can be present on the satellite and makes them useless. This flow is then of industrial interest and cannot be simulated with a continuum model such as Euler or Navier-Stokes equations.
Example of a vehicle re-entry at Mach 4 and a Knudsen number of 0.01. The temperature field is shown on the capsule.
- Polyatomic gas flow